30 Facts you did not know about the Earth

30 Facts you did not know about the Earth

30 Facts you did not know about the Earth
Sonam Yadav old

We all like a good science fiction film or cosmic superhero epic that transports us to other worlds and the cosmos. But the reality is that a lot of amazing stuff is occurring now on Earth. Here is a look into 30 amazing facts about earth:

  1. The Earth is the only known planet in the known universe to have an atmosphere containing 21% oxygen, making it possible for life as we know it to exist. Photosynthetic organisms, such as plants and algae, primarily produce oxygen.
  2. The Earth is the third planet from the Sun in our solar system and is approximately 93 million miles away from it. It takes 365.25 days, or one year, for the Earth to orbit around the Sun.
  3. The Earth is not a perfect sphere but an oblate spheroid, which is slightly flattened at the poles and bulging at the equator due to its rotation. The Earth's equatorial diameter is about 12,742 km, while the polar diameter is about 12,714 km.
  4. The Earth's magnetic field protects the planet from harmful solar radiation, such as flares and coronal mass ejections. This magnetic field is created by the movement of molten iron in the Earth's outer core.
  5. The Earth's core is divided into two layers: the inner and outer cores. The inner core is solid and composed mainly of iron and nickel, while the outer core is liquid and also composed mainly of iron and nickel. The movement of the molten iron in the outer core creates the Earth's magnetic field.
  6. The Earth's rotation on its axis causes the change in seasons, and the tilt of the axis is responsible for the change in the length of the day and night. The Earth's tilt is about 23.5 degrees, which causes the difference in the intensity of sunlight received in different parts of the planet during different seasons.
  7. The Earth's rotation also causes the Coriolis effect, which causes the direction of large-scale wind patterns to change. This effect causes hurricanes to rotate in opposite directions in the northern and southern hemispheres.
  8. The Earth's rotation causes the bulging at the equator and flattening at the poles, which causes the Earth's gravity to be weaker at the equator and stronger at the poles. This difference in gravity is what causes the variation in ocean currents, as well as the phenomenon of gravity anomalies.
  9. The Earth's atmosphere is divided into five layers: the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. Each layer has a different temperature, pressure, and composition and plays a vital role in the planet's weather patterns and climate.
  10. The Earth's surface is 70% water and 30% land. The oceans cover about 71% of the planet's surface and contain 97% of the planet's water.
  11. The Earth is estimated to be about 4.5 billion years old, based on the radiometric dating of rocks and minerals. Scientists believe that the planet formed from a cloud of gas and dust surrounding the young Sun and that the first life forms appeared on Earth around 3.5 billion years ago.
  12. The Earth is constantly changing, with new mountains forming and old ones eroding, oceans rising and falling, and the shifting of tectonic plates that causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This process, known as plate tectonics, is driven by the convection of the Earth's mantle, which is made of solid rock that can move over millions of years.
  13. The Earth has only one natural satellite, the Moon. The Moon is about 384,000 kilometres from Earth and significantly impacts the Earth's tides and the stabilisation of its rotation. The Moon's gravitational pull causes the tides and helps keep the Earth's axial tilt stable, preventing drastic climate changes.
  14. The Earth's surface is home to a wide variety of living organisms, including over 8.7 million species, with new species still being discovered. The diversity of life on Earth results from millions of years of evolution, shaped by factors such as climate change, natural disasters, and the movement of tectonic plates.
  15. The Earth's atmosphere acts as a greenhouse, trapping heat from the sun and warming the planet, making life possible. Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, water vapour, and methane, absorb and re-emit heat, creating a warming effect that keeps the planet's temperature at a habitable level.
  16. The Earth has a diverse range of climates, from the frozen tundras of the Arctic to the scorching desert of the Sahara. This diversity results from factors such as the Earth's rotation, axial tilt, distance from the Sun, and land and water distribution on the planet's surface.
  17. The Earth's oceans play a crucial role in regulating the planet's climate by absorbing heat and carbon dioxide and driving the Earth's weather patterns. The oceans also provide a habitat for a wide variety of marine life and are a major food source for humans.
  18. The Earth's lithosphere is broken into several tectonic plates constantly moving, causing earthquakes and volcanic activity. This movement is driven by the convection of the Earth's mantle, which is made of solid rock that can move over millions of years.
  19. The Earth is in the Holocene epoch, which began around 11,700 years ago, following the last major ice age. The Holocene is the most recent geological epoch and is characterised by the appearance of human civilisation and the development of agriculture.
  20. The Earth is moving through the Milky Way galaxy at a speed of about 220 km/s. It takes the Earth about 225-250 million years to orbit around the Milky Way galaxy once.
  21. The Earth's axial tilt varies slightly over a 41,000-year cycle, which results in changes in the intensity of the seasons. This cycle is known as the precession of the equinoxes, significantly impacting the planet's climate and weather patterns.
  22. The Earth's mantle is solid rock, which convects over millions of years, driving plate tectonics and continental drift. This convection occurs as heat from the Earth's interior is transported to the surface through the movement of solid rock in the mantle.
  23. The Earth's crust comprises many rocks and minerals, containing valuable resources such as coal, oil, and precious metals. The Earth's crust is also rich in other resources such as water, soil, and minerals vital for human civilisation.
  24. The Earth's magnetic field has repeatedly reversed, with the north and south poles flipping. This reversal is thought to occur every few hundred thousand years and is caused by changes in the movement of molten iron in the Earth's outer core.
  25. The Earth's oceans are a sink for carbon dioxide, helping to regulate the planet's climate and weather patterns. The oceans absorb about one-third of the carbon dioxide produced by human activities, such as burning fossil fuels, which helps slow the rate of climate change.
  26. The Earth's atmosphere is being damaged by human activities, such as pollution and deforestation, leading to climate change and loss of biodiversity. These activities increase the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, causing global warming and other changes to the planet's climate.
  27. The Earth's surface is home to many ecosystems, from rainforests to deserts to oceans. These ecosystems provide a habitat for a wide variety of plants and animals and also play an important role in the planet's carbon cycle and the water cycle.
  28. The Earth's gravity is not the same everywhere; it varies depending on altitude, location and the composition of the ground. The Earth's gravity is slightly weaker at the equator than at the poles due to the planet's rotation and shape.
  29. The Earth is part of the solar system, which is part of the Milky Way galaxy, one of the billions of galaxies in the observable universe. The size and age of the universe are still a mystery, and scientists are still exploring it.
  30. The Earth is unique, with its perfect distance from the sun, its large natural satellite, its strong magnetic field and its atmosphere containing oxygen, all of which have made life possible.

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