Branches of Science

Branches of Science

Branches of Science
Saru NiraulaMon Jul 18 2022

Science refers to a collection of information, usually concerning something in the physical world, which can be explained by scientific observation or the scientific approach. The scientific method is an evolution that has taken place over many hundreds of years. It can be summarised as follows:

  • A hypothesis is developed when a physical occurrence is observed.
  • It is then tested by performing objective, repeatable experiments to determine whether the hypothesis is correct.

If the experimental results confirm the hypothesis, it is regarded as scientific theory. If new evidence is discovered that contradicts the hypothesis, it may be altered or abandoned in favour of a new hypothesis, which is then tested further.

The disciplines that explain the physical cosmos are classified in a variety of ways. The most important distinction in science is whether a science is pure, or theoretical, or applied, or practical. Pure science explains a phenomena, whereas applied science suggests how that phenomenon may be used. 

Natural Sciences, Social Sciences, and Formal Sciences are the three primary divisions of modern science that investigate the nature of our world and the cosmos in the broadest sense. As a result, the three major branches of Science are:

  • The Natural sciences: Natural Sciences are the foundational fields of science that investigate the nature of our physical environment and the cosmos.
  • The Social Sciences: Human cultures from throughout the world, as well as human individuals' relationships with their social environments, are studied by social sciences. 

The primary branches of social science are as follows: Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Economics, Archaeology, History, Geography, Law, Politics and so on.

  • The Formal Sciences: Formal Sciences is a distinct field of study in science because it uses formal systems to generate knowledge and investigate the nature of several disciplines spanning from mathematics and logic to computer science and information technology. 

The following are the most important branches of Formal Sciences are Mathematics \sLogic, Computer studies, Statistics and Data Science Systems Science, Information Technology, Artificial Intelligence, and so forth.

Pure or Natural science is classified into the following groups in general:

  • Physical sciences deal with matter and energy and allow us to characterise the material world using weight, mass, volume, and other standard, objective measurements.
  • Earth sciences are disciplines that study the phenomena of the Earth, its atmosphere, and the solar system to which it belongs.
  • Life sciences are the study of living creatures, their internal processes, and their interactions with one another and with their surroundings.

Branches of Science: Physical Sciences

Physical science is the field of science that deals with inorganic materials, or nonliving materials. Physical scientists can make groundbreaking discoveries about how matter operates and other universal phenomena. 

Physical science is divided into various categories, including physics, astronomy, and chemistry. Physical science may be applied in a variety of careers. Some typical occupations in physical science include:


Astronomers are scientists who investigate the cosmos beyond Earth, such as galaxies, planets, and stars. Astronomers frequently employ satellites to picture space objects, which they subsequently analyse to learn more about the cosmos. They can also develop computer algorithms and solve equations to better comprehend space phenomena.


Physicists are in charge of developing and testing hypotheses in physics. They frequently conduct experiments and use physics abilities to build scientific equipment.

Computer scientist

A physics knowledge can also help computer scientists. Computer scientists are in charge of figuring out how to utilise computers to solve issues.


Chemists are scientists who conduct tests on molecular stuff. They often test and develop various compounds for a range of applications. There are several specialisations within chemistry, including biochemistry, analytical chemistry, geochemistry, and others.


Cosmologists are scientists who investigate the universe's origins, the link between spatial and temporal, and perhaps other universal features.

Quantum physicist

Quantum physicists are researchers who are experts in quantum physics, which studies the behaviour of the cosmos on an atomic and subatomic scale. Quantum physicists frequently work with previously unstudied scientific hypotheses.

Branches of Science: Earth Sciences

Earth science is a branch of natural science that studies the earth's minerals and atmosphere. World scientists can contribute to society's knowledge of the earth and how humans can safeguard it. 


There are several earth science categories and career opportunities. Meteorology, geology, oceanography, and environmental science are all examples of earth sciences. Earth science is a prominent career field with several employment choices, including:


 Meteorologists are in charge of assessing the weather and forecasting it. Their weather forecasts may be broadcast on television news or internet video.

Land planners 

Land Planners can benefit from earth scientific expertise as well. Land planners are in charge of deciding how to control and develop the land.

Oceanographers are scientists who research the ocean, including its ecosystems, marine life, and many other aspects.


Geologists are scientists who research rocks and other solid aspects of the earth and other planets. Geologists frequently investigate geology-related natural disasters such as mudslides and earthquakes.


Palaeontologists are scientists that investigate the earth's past via the examination of fossils. Palaeontologists can contribute to people's knowledge of the earth's natural past.

Environmental specialist

Environmental specialists are concerned with the environment of the Earth. They can utilise their understanding of earth science to devise solutions to safeguard the earth's and humans' health.

Branches of Science: Life Sciences

Life science is a field of science concerned with the study of organic, or living, organisms. Life science, which includes plants, animals, and human biology, may help humans comprehend the world. 

Life science is a large discipline with several subfields and career opportunities: Biology, ecology, and agriculture are some of the sub-branches of life science. Life science has various applications, particularly in the medical area. Life science occupations include the following:

Marine biologists

These are scientists who research marine life. There are several specialities in marine biology, such as marine mammalogy, marine microbiology, and fisheries biology.


They are scientists who research and create drugs to treat ailments. They are in charge of testing chemicals and pharmaceuticals to ensure their safety. Pharmacologists often have a biology background.

Forensic scientists 

Forensic scientists are in charge of studying crime scenes and evidence in order to assist solve crimes. Forensic scientists frequently analyse evidence in laboratories. They can use DNA analysis to identify criminal suspects.

Agricultural scientist

Agricultural scientists research and conduct tests on crops and farm animals in order to better the farming business. Agricultural scientists can perform studies and develop new agricultural practices by utilising their biology abilities and expertise


Virologists are researchers who study viruses in order to create techniques to avoid viral infections and epidemics. Virologists often have a background in biology.

Courses Offered in Physical Sciences

BSc/MSc Physics

BSc/MSc Chemistry

MSc Space Sciences

MSc Particle Physics

MSc Nuclear Physics

MSc Astrophysics etc.

Top Jobs in Physical Sciences






Software Engineer

Computer scientist


Nuclear Technician


Space Scientist

Courses offered in Life Sciences

BSc Botany

MSc Zoology

BSc/MSc Anatomy

BSc/MSc Molecular Biology

BSc/MSc Genetics

BSc/MSc Biotechnology

MSc Bioinformatics

MSc Biochemistry etc.

Top Jobs in Life Sciences

Marine Biologist




Forensic Scientist





Courses Offered in Earth Sciences

BSc Geology

MSc Geology

BSc/MSc Geography

BSc/MSc Astronomy

MSc Climatology

MSc Meteorology etc.

Top Job Profiles in Earth Sciences


Land planners




Environmental scientist




There are, however, regions of overlap between these three categories of pure sciences, where one sort of phenomenon may be related with another sort of phenomenon. Light, for example, is the energy source driving photosynthesis, or food producing processes, in plants. 

As a result, there may be differences between pure sciences, even between pure and applied ones, which may blur, and a new compound scientific discipline may emerge.

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